The Bible – Old Testament
1 A psalm of David. 2 The LORD says to you, my lord: “Take your throne at my righthand, while I make your enemies your footstool.”
The scepter of your sovereign might the LORD will extend from Zion. The LORD says: “Rule over your enemies!
3 Yours is princely power from the day of your birth. In holy splendor before the daystar, like the dew I begot you.”
4 The LORD has sworn and will not waver: “Like Melchizedek you are a priest forever.”
At your right hand is the Lord, who crushes kings on the day of wrath,
Who, robed in splendor, judges nations, crushes heads across the wide earth,
5 Who drinks from the brook by the wayside and thus holds high the head.
1 [Psalm 110] A royal psalm in which a court singer recites three oracles in which God assures the king that his enemies are conquered (⇒ Psalm 110:1-2), makes the king “son” in traditional adoption language (⇒ Psalm 110:3), gives priestly status to the king and promises to be with him in future military ventures (⇒ Psalm 110:4-7).
2  The LORD says to you, my lord: literally, “The LORD says to my lord,” a polite form of address of an inferior to a superior. Cf ⇒ 1 Sam 25:25; ⇒ 2 Sam 1:10. The court singer refers to the king. Jesus in the synoptic gospels (⇒ Matthew 22:41-46 and parallels) takes the psalmist to be David and hence “my lord” refers to the messiah, who must be someone greater than David. Your footstool: in ancient times victorious kings put their feet on the prostrate bodies of their enemies.
4  Like Melchizedek: Melchizedek was the ancient king of Salem (Jerusalem) who blessed Abraham (⇒ Genesis 14:18-20); like other kings of the time he performed priestly functions. Hebrews 7 sees in Melchizedek a type of Christ.
5  Who drinks from the brook by the wayside: the meaning is uncertain. Some see an allusion to a rite of royal consecration at the Gihon spring (cf ⇒ 1 Kings 1:33, ⇒ 38). Others find here an image of the divine warrior (or king) pursuing enemies so relentlessly that he does not stop long enough to eat and drink.