The Bible – Old Testament
When the enemies of Judah and Benjamin heard that the exiles were building a temple for the LORD, the God of Israel, \
they approached Zerubbabel and the family heads and said to them, “Let us build with you, for we seek your God just as you do, and we have sacrificed to him since the days of Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, who had us brought here.”
But Zerubbabel, Jeshua, and the rest of the family heads of Israel answered them, “It is not your responsibility to build with us a house for our God, but we alone must build it for the LORD, the God of Israel, as King Cyrus of Persia has commanded us.”
Thereupon the people of the land set out to intimidate and dishearten the people of Judah so as to keep them from building.
1 They also suborned counselors to work against them and thwart their plans during the remaining years of Cyrus, king of Persia, and until the reign of Darius, king of Persia.
Also at the beginning of the reign of Ahashuerus they prepared a written accusation against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem.
2 Again, in the time of Artaxerxes, Mithredath wrote in concert with Tabeel and the rest of his fellow officials to Artaxerxes, king of Persia. The document was written in Aramaic and was accompanied by a translation. (Aramaic:)
3 Then Rehum, the governor, and Shimshai, the scribe, wrote the following letter against Jerusalem to King Artaxerxes:
“Rehum, the governor, Shimshai, the scribe, and their fellow judges, officials, and agents from among the Persian, Urukian, Babylonian, Susian (that is Elamite),
and the other peoples whom the great and illustrious Assurbanipal transported and settled in the city of Samaria and elsewhere in the province West-of-Euphrates, as follows. . . .”
This is a copy of the letter that they sent to him: “To King Artaxerxes, your servants, the men of West-of-Euphrates, as follows:
Let it be known to the king that the Jews who came up from you to us have arrived at Jerusalem and are now rebuilding this rebellious and evil city. They are raising up its walls, and the foundations have already been laid.
Now let it be known to the king that if this city is rebuilt and its walls are raised up again, they will no longer pay taxes, tributes, or tolls; thus it can only result in harm to the throne.
Now, since we partake of the salt of the palace, we ought not simply to look on while the king is being dishonored. Therefore we have sent this message to inform you, O king,
so that inquiry may be made in the historical records of your fathers. In the historical records you can discover and verify that this city is a rebellious city which has proved fatal to kings and provinces, and that sedition has been fostered there since ancient times. For that reason this city was destroyed.
We inform you, O king, that if this city is rebuilt and its walls are raised up again, by that very fact you will no longer own any part of West-of-Euphrates.”
The king sent this answer: “To Rehum, the governor, Shimshai, the scribe, and their fellow officials living in Samaria and elsewhere in the province West-of-Euphrates, greetings and the following:
The communication which you sent us has been read plainly in my presence.
When at my command inquiry was made, it was verified that from ancient times this city has risen up against kings and that rebellion and sedition have been fostered there.
Powerful kings were once in Jerusalem who ruled over all West-of-Euphrates, and taxes, tributes, and tolls were paid to them.
Give orders, therefore, that will stop the work of these men. This city may not be rebuilt until a further decree has been issued by me.
Take care that you do not neglect this matter, lest the evil grow to the detriment of the throne.”
As soon as a copy of King Artaxerxes’ letter had been read before Rehum, the governor, Shimshai, the scribe, and their fellow officials, they went in all haste to the Jews in Jerusalem and stopped their work by force of arms.
4 Thus it was that the work on the house of God in Jerusalem was halted. This inaction lasted until the second year of the reign of Darius, king of Persia.
1  Darius: Darius I (521-485 B.C.). The temple-building narrative continues in ⇒ Ezra 4:24. In between (⇒ Ezra 4:6-23) is a series of notes about the opposition to the returned exiles voiced at the Persian court in the early fifth century B.C., after the temple had been reestablished.
2  Aramaic: this word in the original text seems to be a note indicating a change of language from Hebrew to Aramaic, which in fact takes place here. The Aramaic section ends with ⇒ Ezra 6:18 but again in ⇒ Ezra 7:12-26 a royal letter is cited in Aramaic.
3 [8-23] The central question here is the rebuilding of the fortification walls of Jerusalem, not the building of the temple. The interruption of work on the city wall some time before 445 B.C. was the occasion for the coming of Nehemiah to Palestine (⇒ Nehemiah 1:1-4; ⇒ 2:1-5). Artaxerxes: Artaxerxes I (464-423 B.C.).
4  The second year . . . of Darius: that is, 520 B.C.; it marks the beginning of the successful restoration of the temple, which was accomplished within the five years following (⇒ Ezra 5:1-⇒ 6:18).