The Bible – Old Testament
1 About that time Antiochus retreated in disgrace from the region of Persia.
He had entered the city called Persepolis and attempted to rob the temple and gain control of the city. Thereupon the people had swift recourse to arms, and Antiochus’ men were routed, so that in the end Antiochus was put to flight by the natives and forced to beat a shameful retreat.
On his arrival in Ecbatana, he learned what had happened to Nicanor and to Timothy’s forces.
Overcome with anger, he planned to make the Jews suffer for the injury done by those who had put him to flight. Therefore he ordered his charioteer to drive without stopping until he finished the journey. Yet the condemnation of Heaven rode with him, since he said in his arrogance, “I will make Jerusalem the common graveyard of the Jews as soon as I arrive there.”
So the all-seeing Lord, the God of Israel, struck him down with an unseen but incurable blow; for scarcely had he uttered those words when he was seized with excruciating pains in his bowels and sharp internal torment,
a fit punishment for him who had tortured the bowels of others with many barbarous torments.
Far from giving up his insolence, he was all the more filled with arrogance. Breathing fire in his rage against the Jews, he gave orders to drive even faster. As a result he hurtled from the dashing chariot, and every part of his body was racked by the violent fall.
Thus he who previously, in his superhuman presumption, thought he could command the waves of the sea, and imagined he could weigh the mountaintops in his scales, was now thrown to the ground and had to be carried on a litter, clearly manifesting to all the power of God.
The body of this impious man swarmed with worms, and while he was still alive in hideous torments, his flesh rotted off, so that the entire army was sickened by the stench of his corruption.
Shortly before, he had thought that he could reach the stars of heaven, and now, no one could endure to transport the man because of this intolerable stench.
At last, broken in spirit, he began to give up his excessive arrogance, and to gain some understanding, under the scourge of God, for he was racked with pain unceasingly.
When he could no longer bear his own stench, he said, “It is right to be subject to God, and not to think one’s mortal self divine.”
Then this vile man vowed to the Lord, who would no longer have mercy on him,
that he would set free the holy city, toward which he had been hurrying with the intention of leveling it to the ground and making it a common graveyard;
he would put on perfect equality with the Athenians all the Jews, whom he had judged not even worthy of burial, but fit only to be thrown out with their children to be eaten by vultures and wild animals;
he would adorn with the finest offerings the holy temple which he had previously despoiled; he would restore all the sacred vessels many times over; and would provide from his own revenues the expenses required for the sacrifices.
Besides all this, he would become a Jew himself and visit every inhabited place to proclaim there the power of God.
But since God’s punishment had justly come upon him, his sufferings were not lessened, so he lost hope for himself and wrote the following letter to the Jews in the form of a supplication. It read thus: Death of Antiochus
2 “To my esteemed Jewish citizens, Antiochus, their king and general, sends hearty greetings and best wishes for their health and happiness.
If you and your children are well and your affairs are going as you wish, I thank God very much, for my hopes are in heaven.
Now that I am ill, I recall with affection the esteem and good will you bear me. On returning from the regions of Persia, I fell victim to a troublesome illness; so I thought it necessary to form plans for the general welfare of all.
Actually, I do not despair about my health, since I have great hopes of recovering from my illness.
Nevertheless, I know that my father, whenever he went on campaigns in the hinterland, would name his successor,
so that, if anything unexpected happened or any unwelcome news came, the people throughout the realm would know to whom the government had been entrusted, and so not be disturbed.
3 I am also bearing in mind that the neighboring rulers, especially those on the borders of our kingdom, are on the watch for opportunities and waiting to see what will happen. I have therefore appointed as king my son Antiochus, whom I have often before entrusted and commended to most of you, when I made hurried visits to the outlying provinces. I have written to him the letter copied below.
Therefore I beg and entreat each of you to remember the general and individual benefits you have received, and to continue to show good will toward me and my son.
I am confident that, following my policy, he will treat you with mildness and kindness in his relations with you.”
So this murderer and blasphemer, after extreme sufferings, such as he had inflicted on others, died a miserable death in the mountains of a foreign land.
His foster brother Philip brought the body home; but fearing Antiochus’ son, he later withdrew into Egypt, to Ptolemy Philometor.
1 [1-28] In order to keep together the various accounts of God’s punishment of the persecutors of his people, the author places here the stories of Antiochus’ illness and death (in actuality the king died only after the purification of the temple; cf ⇒ 1 Macc 4:36-59; ⇒ 6:1-16; ⇒ 2 Macc 10:1-8); of Judas’ campaigns in Idumea and Transjordan; cf ⇒ 1 Macc 5:1-51; ⇒ 2 Macc 10:14-38; and of the first expedition of Lysias (⇒ 1 Macc 4:26-35; ⇒ 2 Macc 11:1-15).
2 [19-27] Despite the statement in ⇒ 2 Macc 9:18 this letter is not really a supplication. It is rather a notification to all the king’s subjects of the appointment of his son as his successor and a request that they be loyal to the new king. Apparently the same letter, which has every appearance of being authentic, was sent to the various peoples throughout the kingdom, with only a few words of address changed for each group.
3  The letter copied below: not included in the text of 2 Macc.